An international scholarly online history journal on First and Second Empire subjects: articles, bibliographies, book reviews, in english and in french

Delve deeper into Napoleonic history here in our section on the history of the two empires. Alongside a section for those just starting, there are many articles, images with commentary, close-ups and special dossiers for the serious Napoleonic enthusiast.

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Articles : A new Napoleonic campaign for Montereau
Dossier thématiques : A close-up on: the Mexican campaign, 1862-1867
Timelines : The Mexican Campaign, 1862-1867


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A timeline, an article or two, some biographies, a few images, and a bibliography, in short a close-up on a topic related to the First and Second French Empires. You can search for other close-ups either by keyword or by theme.

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A close-up: the birth of the Roi de Rome


The Roi de Rome<i>, by Isabey (1811) © RMN</i>

The Roi de Rome, by Isabey (1811) © RMN

Napoleon François Charles Joseph's short life took in five titles (Prince Imperial, Roi de Rome, French emperor, Prince de Parme, and Duc de Reichstadt), two fleeting reigns, exile in Vienna and a military career in the Austrian army of his grandfather. Born on 20 March, 1811, the long-awaited heir to the French imperial throne, son of Napoleon Bonaparte and Marie-Louise of Austria, twice succeeded his father before his life was cut short by tuberculosis, at the tender age of twenty-one.



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