The Second Italian Campaign

Period : Directory / 1st Empire
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From Napoleon's crossing of the Great St Bernard Pass to the Peace of Lunéville.


1799 (An VIII)

25 December (4 Nivôse)
(Paris)
Bonaparte wrote to the King of England and to the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire proposing that negotiations should begin, whilst an Austrian army under Melas was preparing to attack Italy.


1800

15 January (25 Nivôse)
(Paris)
The rejection of Bonaparte's proposition arrived in Paris. A similar rejection from Vienna was to reach Talleyrand a few days later.

16 January (26 Nivôse)
(Paris)
Another letter, moderate on the surface but firm nevertheless, from Talleyrand to his opposite number in Britain, Grenville.

21 January (1 Pluviôse)
(London)
In the House of Commons, Pitt declared that he opposed Bonaparte, whom he qualified as “the son and champion of all the atrocities of the Revolution”.

8 March (14 Ventôse)
(Paris)
The official creation of an “armée de réserve” (reserve army) stationed between Dijon and Geneva. Berthier was to be named its fictive commander in chief three weeks later. A letter was sent to all prefects, and a proclamation was made to the French people, informing them of the imminent war.

2 April (12 Germinal)
(Paris) 
Carnot was appointed Ministre de la Guerre.

5 April (15 Germinal)
(Italy)
Offensive of the Austrian army in Italy commanded by Melas. Masséna and Suchet get separated, the former heading for Genoa and the latter falling back to the Var river.

7 April (17 Germinal)
(Paris)
Letter from Talleyrand to the minister Thugut in an attempt at dialogue.

21 April (1 Floréal)
(Italy) 
Masséna was trapped in Genoa besieged by the Austrians.

25 April (5 Floréal)
(Germany)
In Germany, Moreau crossed the Rhine and attacked the Austrian army led by Kray. Four days later, and further south, Lecourbe also went on the offensive.

3 May (13 Floréal)
(Germany)
Victories for Lecourbe at Stokach and for Gouvion-Saint-Cyr at Engen.

5 May (15 Floréal)
(Germany) 
Moreau's victory at Moesskirch.

6 May (16 Floréal)
(Paris)
Bonaparte left Paris in order to take up command of the Armée de réserve. He arrived in Geneva on 9 May.

9 May (19 Floréal)
(Germany)
Victory for Gouvion-Saint-Cyr at Biberach.

10 May (20 Floréal)
(Germany)
Success for Lecourbe at Memmingen. Kray was thrown back onto the Ulm river.

14 May (24 Floréal)
(Switzerland)
The beginning of the crossing of the Great St Bernard Pass by the Armée de réserve. Lannes was commander of the van.

16 May (26 Floréal)
(Italy) 
Lannes entered Aosta.

19 May (29 Floréal)
(Italy) 
Lannes was stopped in his march by resistance from the Fort de Bard. The army was forced to go around the heavily fortified stronghold and to pass via mountain routes but without the artillery.

20 May (30 Floréal)
(Switzerland)
Bonaparte crossed the Great St Bernard Pass. The whole army was to make the crossing three days later.

22 May (2 Prairial)
(France) 
Suchet repulsed an Austrian attack on the Var.

24 May (4 Prairial)
(Italy) 
Lannes entered Ivrea.

25 May (5 Prairial)
(Italy)
Bonaparte checked at the Fort de Bard.

26 May (6 Prairial)
(Italy) 
Lannes successful in Chiusella. Bonaparte sets up camp at Ivrea.

28 May (8 Prairial)
(Germany) 
Lecourbe entered Augsburg.

30 May (10 Prairial)
(Italy)
Bonaparte reached Vercelli, Murat Novara, whilst Lannes marched on Pavia. Mélas suddenly realised that the Armée de réserve was rushing up to him from behind.

1 June (12 Prairial)
(Italy)
Capitulation of the Fort de Bard.

2 June (13 Prairial)
(Italy)
Bonaparte's entry into Milan and Lannes' into Pavia. The following day, the Cisalpine Republic was re-etablished.

4 June (15 Prairial)
(Italy)
Surrender of Masséna in Genoa. Bonaparte was to learn of the capitulation on 7 June. He had authorised Masséna to succumb to the siege “after 31 May”.

6 June (17 Prairial)
(Italy)
The beginning of the second phase of the Italian Campaign. Bonaparte tried to cut Melas' line of retreat.

7 June (18 Prairial)
(Italy) 
Murat crossed the Po at Piacenza.

8 June (19 Prairial)
(Italy) 
Lannes took control of the defile at Stradella.

9 June (20 Prairial)
(Italy) 
Lannes' victory at Montebello.

14 June (25 Prairial)
(Italy)
Victory at Marengo.

15 June (26 Prairial)
(Italy)
Signature of the Convention d'Alessandria by Mélas and Bonaparte. The following day, Bonaparte wrote to Francis II proposing peace.

19 June (30 Prairial)
(Germany) 
Moreau's victory at Höchstädt.

23 June (4 Messidor)
(Germany) 
Lecourbe's victory at Nördlingen.

27 June (8 Messidor)
(Germany)
Entry of Moreau into Neuburg.

28 June (9 Messidor)
(Germany) 
Moreau's victory at Oberhausen. Entry of Decaen into Munich.

2 July (13 Messidor)
(Paris)
Bonaparte back in the Tuileries in Paris.

5 July (16 Messidor)
(Paris)
A letter from Francis II reached Bonaparte accepting, superficially, the principle of negotiation.

13 July (24 Messidor)
(Germany)
Taking of Feldkirch by Lecourbe.

15 July (26 Messidor)
(Germany)
The Parsdorf armistice between Moreau and Kray.

21 July (2 Thermidor)
(Paris)
Bonaparte received the Comte de Saint-Julien, sent by Francis II. The Premier Consul was unaware of the fact that Austria and England had just signed a treaty by which they engaged not to sign a separate peace treaty before February 1801.

28 July (9 Thermidor)
(Paris)
Signature of the preliminaries for peace with the Comte de Saint-Julien. Francis II's envoy was to be repudiated by Thugut on his return and imprisoned (also by Thugut) in a castle.

24 August (6 Fructidor)
(Vienna) 
Thugut proposed a general congress to organise the peace. He would not, he wrote, agree a peace without the presence of representatives from England.


1800 (An IX)

25 September (3 Vendémiaire)
(Vienna) 
Thugut replaced by Louis de Cobenzl. France and Austria decided to meet at Lunéville. In Germany, the armistice is respected by both parties, so well in fact that Moreau returned to Paris where he married on 9 November.

9 October (17 Vendémiaire)
(Paris)
Joseph Bonaparte appointed to lead the French delegation at Lunéville. Cobenzl was chosen to direct the Austrian delegation.

13 November (22 Brumaire)
(Germany)
In conformity with the clauses of the Passdorf armistice, the recurrence of hostilities was reported to Austria.

14 November (23 Brumaire)
(Italy) 
Brune marched on Tuscany occupied by the Austrians and not covered by the Alessandria armistice.

17 November (26 Brumaire)
(Paris) 
Moreau left Paris to take up again his command of the Armée d'Allemagne.

27 November (6 Frimaire)
(Germany)
Archduke John's Austrian troops went onto the offensive in Bavaria. Moreau retook up his post the following day.

29 November (8 Frimaire)
(Germany)
A French detachment beaten at Visilburg

30 November (9 Frimaire)
(Germany)
Grenier beaten by the Archduke John at Empfing. With his flank consequently hreatened, Moreau undertook a strategic retreat, thereby drew the Austrians onto a battleground which he had chosen.

3 December (12 Frimaire)
(Germany) 
Moreau's victory at Hohenlinden (East of Munich).

14 December (23 Frimaire)
(Germany) 
Combat at Salzburg between Austrian forces and French forces under Decaen.

15 December (24 Frimaire)
(Germany)
Victory for Richepance at Herdorf

19 December (28 Frimaire)
(Germany) 
Richepance's victory at Lambach. The French armies pose a direct threat to Vienna.

25 December (4 Nivôse)
(Germany)
Steyer armistice between Moreau and the Austrians.

(Italy) 
Suchet and Dupont's victory at Pozzolo.


1801 (An IX)

2 January (12 Nivôse)
(Lunéville)
The restart of the Lunéville negotiations.

3 January (13 Nivôse)
(Italy) 
Brune took Verona.

6 January (16 Nivôse)
(Italy) 
Macdonald took Trento. Miollès's offensive in Tuscany.

15 January (25 Nivôse)
(Italy)
The Armistice of Treviso.

6 February (17 Pluviôse)
(Italy)
After a rapid and successful campaign, Murat signed the Armistice of Foligno with the Neapolitans.

8 February (19 Pluviôse)
(London)
Resignation of Pitt; replaced by Addington.

9 February (20 Pluviôse)
(Lunéville)
Signing of the Peace of Lunéville.

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