An international scholarly online history journal on First and Second Empire subjects: articles, bibliographies, book reviews, in english and in french

Delve deeper into Napoleonic history here in our section on the history of the two empires. Alongside a section for those just starting, there are many articles, images with commentary, close-ups and special dossiers for the serious Napoleonic enthusiast.

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Texts and articles on the history of the First and Second Empires. Many more articles are available on the French side of the site, so dust of your dictionaries and take the plunge!

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Wellington's Mules
TENNANT R. J. , First Empire n°113 , July/August , 2010

Mules 'without pride of ancestry or hope of posterity' have served the fighting soldier for almost as long as the horse. R. J. Tennant, using contemporary accounts, letters and diary entries as well as later historical works, explores the role of the Equus mulus, otherwise known as the humble mule, in the Peninsular War. The article discusses their work, the prices paid for them, their muleteers and their role in the British, Portuguese and Spanish artillery and the commissariat. The article originally appeared in First Empire, issue n° 113.


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