An international scholarly online history journal on First and Second Empire subjects: articles, bibliographies, book reviews, in english and in french

Delve deeper into Napoleonic history here in our section on the history of the two empires. Alongside a section for those just starting, there are many articles, images with commentary, close-ups and special dossiers for the serious Napoleonic enthusiast.

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Texts and articles on the history of the First and Second Empires. Many more articles are available on the French side of the site, so dust of your dictionaries and take the plunge!

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1855. France's first international exhibition
POISSON Georges , Revue du Souvenir Napoléonien n°457 , February-March , 2005

As far back as the Middle Ages, local fairs were the opportunity for French crafts and tradesmen to sell and exchange their products and wares. During the Directory period, François de Neufchâteau, then Interior Minister, had the idea to hold in September 1798 a gathering of artists and manufacturers, "a new sort of event, a public exhibition of products of French industry, in order to deal a death blow to English industry". The elevated arcades on the Champs-Elysées would serve to promote - free of charge - manufactured products and production methods, with emphasis placed squarely on invention and its usefulness ("the principal characteristic of a work's merit is invention, key to public recognition is [a product's] utility").


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