An international scholarly online history journal on First and Second Empire subjects: articles, bibliographies, book reviews, in english and in french

Delve deeper into Napoleonic history here in our section on the history of the two empires. Alongside a section for those just starting, there are many articles, images with commentary, close-ups and special dossiers for the serious Napoleonic enthusiast.

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In pictures : The crossing of the bridge at Arcole - Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile
Bibliographies : The Mexican campaign, 1862-1867
Timelines : The Mexican Campaign, 1862-1867


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A timeline, an article or two, some biographies, a few images, and a bibliography, in short a close-up on a topic related to the First and Second French Empires. You can search for other close-ups either by keyword or by theme.

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A close-up on: Abd el-Kader


Introduction | Commentary | Timeline | Images | Bibliography

Abd el-Kader <br><i>Credits: Roger-Viollet</i>

Abd el-Kader
Credits: Roger-Viollet

Abd el-Kader is considered to be one of the founders of the modern Algerian state as well as an important figure in east-west rapprochement. At the mid-point of the 19th century, he and Napoleon III were the most important figures in their respective countries, Algeria and France. They were both born in 1808, the former on 6 September and the latter on 20 April. Since 2008 is the bicentenary year of birth, now is a good time to take a look at their relations.



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