Revue du Souvenir Napoléonien
1. The author wishes to thank Brad Folsom and Will Yancey for their suggestions and assistance on this project.
2. Hezekiah Niles, Niles' Weekly Register (Baltimore: H. Niles, 1814-1837), XXIV: 352.
3. Laure Junot, duchess d'Abrantès, Memoirs of Madame Junot, 6 Vols. (London: Grolier, 1910), V: 121.
4. Georges Six, Dictionnaire biographique des généraux et amiraux français de la Révolution et de l'Empire (1792-1814), 2 Vols. (Paris : G. Saffroy, 1934), II: 39-40. Hereafter Dictionnaire biographique.
5. See, for example, “François-Antoine, baron Lallemand,” Biographie nouvelle des contemporains, ed. Arnault, et al. 20 Volumes. (Paris: Librarie historique, 1820-1825), X: 374-375; “Charles-François-Antoine, baron de Lallemand,” Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle, ed. Pierre Larousse (Paris: 1873), X: 95; and Niles, Niles' Weekly Register, 24 May 1817, XII: 208.
6. Works abound on the Champ d'Asile; the standard in English is Rafe Blaufarb, Bonapartists in the Borderlands: French Exiles and Refugees on the Gulf Coast, 1815-1835 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2005). See also Thomas Wood Clarke, Emigrés in the Wilderness (New York: Macmillan, 1941); Ronald Creagh, Nos cousins d'Amérique: Histoire des français aux Etats-Unis (Paris: Payot, 1988); Marcel Doher, Proscrits et exilés après Waterloo (Paris: J. Peyronnet, 1965); Kent Gardien, “Take Pity on Our Glory: The Men of Champ d'Asile,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 87 (January 1984): 241-268; Betje Black Klier, “Champ d'Asile, Texas” in The French in Texas: History, Migration, Culture, ed. François Lagarde (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003); Simone de la Souchère Délery, Napoleon's Soldiers in America (Gretna, LA: Pelican, 1972); and Jean Soublin, Le champ d'asile (Paris: Seuil, 1985).
7. Napoleon noted that Lallemand “a le feu sacré” in Barry Edward O'Meara, Napoleon in Exile; or, A Voice from Saint Helena (London: W. Simpkin and R. Marshall., 1822) Volume I: 511;
8. Natalia Griffon de Pleineville, “Les généraux frères Lallemand,” Tradition no. 169 (2004): 17-18, and Six, Dictionnaire biographique, II: 37-39.
9. On such schools, see David D. Bien, “The Army in the French Enlightenment: Reform, Reaction and Revolution,” Past & Present 85 (1979), 68-98; “Military Education in 18th Century France; Technical and Non-Technical Determinants,” Science, Technology, and Warfare: Proceedings of the Third Military History Symposium, U.S. Air Force Academy, 8-9 May 1969, ed. Monte D. Wright and Lawrence J. Paszek (Washington, DC, 1971), 51-59 provides an excellent précis on noble military education in the Old Regime.
10. Timothy Blanning, The French Revolutionary Wars, 1787-1802 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996), 71-81 provides the most cogent description of the battle and its implications. See also Samuel F. Scott, From Yorktown to Valmy: The Transformation of the French Army in an Age of Revolution (Niwot: CO: University Press of Colorado, 1998).
11. Throughout the Revolution, the mob in Paris periodically rose against the government. These risings, called journées, ranged from minor disturbances to complete overthrows of the government. One such occurred on 13 Vendémiaire 1795. Napoleon Bonaparte's artillery, alongside Joachim Murat's cavalry, swept the streets of rioters and preserved the Directory, for which it was grateful to the young Corsican and rewarded him with command of the Army of Italy the following year. See William F. Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 320-334 and Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution, 2 Vols., trans. John Hall Steward and James Friguglietti (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964), II: 157-185 for excellent discussions of the events and implications of 13 Vendémiaire.
12. Pleineville, “Les généraux frères Lallemand,” 15; and Jean Tulard, “François Antoine, baron Lallemand” in Dictionnaire Napoléon (Paris: Fayard, 1987), II: 138-139.
13. Pleineville, “Les généraux frères Lallemand,” 15-16; and Six, Dictionnaire biographique, II: 37-38.
14. Jean-Joseph-Stanislas Albert Damas-Hinard, Dictionnaire-Napoléon, ou, recueil alphabétique des opinions et jugements de l'Empereur Napoléon Ier (Paris: Plon, 1854), 297; F. L. Maitland, The Surrender of Napoleon (London: W. Blackwood and Sons, 1904), 41; O'Meara, Napoleon in Exile; or, A Voice from Saint Helena, I: 511; and Sidney Smith, Memoirs, 2 Vols. (London: R. Bentley, 1839), I: 307-314.
15. “François-Antoine, baron Lallemand,” Biographie nouvelle des contemporains, 374-375; Six, Dictionnaire biographique II: 39-40 both argue for an earlier repatriation date. Baron Dieudonné-Adrien-Paul François Charles Henri Thiebault, Memoirs, 2 Vols. (London, 1896), II: 4, offers a strange vignette, which he claims was from the confused days before Napoleon's seizure of power on 18 Brumaire 1799: “Sleeping that night at Toulon, I went on the next day to Marseilles. There I met, with hardly a rag on, the brothers Lallemand, now officers of high rank. They had been in one of the two coaches which had gone by me at Saint-Maximin. A league further on they and all their companions had been completely stripped of their goods. They knew no one in the place, and I had to hand them the money they required to get some clothes and continue their journey, while congratulating myself on the circumstances which had made me change my route and escape Legitimist zeal.”
16. Pleineville, “Les généraux frères Lallemand,” 15-16 argues for the later date. This seems the more likely case, as few French escaped Egypt or British captivity until 1800. Thiebault's reference may simply have recorded the wrong year, substituting 1799 for 1800.
17. Lauré Junot, duchess d'Abrantès, Memoirs of Napoleon, His Court, and Family, 2 Vols. (London: R. Bentley, 1836), II: 170.
18. Junot, Memoirs of Napoleon, His Court, and Family, II: 170, 247, 256, and 380.
19. See Bonaparte to Lallemand, 28 October 1798, Correspondance générale, 9 Vols. (Paris: Fayard, 2004-2013), II: 581.
20. Pleineville, “Les généraux frères Lallemand,” 16. Laurént Dubois and John D. Garrigus, Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), provides an excellent introduction to the subject, including the disastrous French expedition.
21. Junot, Memoirs of Napoleon, His Court, and Family, II: 307. She notes that this disgrace came in large part because of Lallemand's disagreements with the expedition's commander, Charles-Victor-Emmanuel Leclerc.
23. See Ibid 247, 256, 380, where Junot repeatedly refers to “my friend Madame Lallemand.”
24. See Maxime Cordier, Junot, qui ne fut pas maréchal d'empire (Le Coteau: Horvath, 1986); J. Lucas-Dubreton, Junot dit “la Tempête” (Paris: Gallimard, 1937).
25. The Third Coalition, comprised of major powers England, Austria, and Russia, formed in 1805 as the newly-crowned Emperor Napoleon prepared an army of invasion on the northern French coast. When the seas proved inaccessible, he turned south with stunning speed and captured the bulk of the Austrian army at Ulm in October 1805. On 2 December, he conducted perhaps his finest tactical battle at Austerlitz, crushing the Russian army. The following year, Prussia declared war, forming the Fourth Coalition with England and Russia. Napoleon marched north and decimated the Prussian army at the twin battles of Jena and Auerstädt on 14 October 1806. The following winter and spring, he fought and destroyed the remaining Russian field army at Eylau and again at Friedland, ending major-power resistance for the next several years. The three years from 1805-1807 are considered to have been Napoleon's military apex, as he won three of his signal victories and all but destroyed the armies of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. See David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon: The Mind and Method of History's Greatest Soldier (New York: Scribner, 1966), 381-592, which remains the most useful single-volume operational account of Napoleon's battles. For the Third Coalition, see Christopher Duffy, Austerlitz 1805 (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1977); Robert Goetz, 1805: Austerlitz (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2005); and Frederick C. Schneid, Napoleon's Conquest of Europe: The War of the Third Coalition (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005). For the Fourth Coalition, F. Loraine Petre, Napoleon's Conquest of Prussia – 1806 (New York: John Lane Co., 1907) and Napoleon's Campaign in Poland, 1806-7 (New York: John Lane Co., 1907), provide the best operational accounts despite their great age.
26. For example, see Mathieu Dumas, Histoire de la guerre dans la péninsule et dans le midi de la France, depuis l'année 1807 jusqu'à l'année 1814, 13 Vols. (Paris: Treuttel et Würtz, 1828-1844), IX: 25, 75-76, 234; Nicolas-Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie, Campagnes des généraux français depuis la Révolution de 1789 jusqu'à nos jours: campagnes de Galice et de Portugal 1809 (Paris, 1851), 58; Arthur Wellesley, duke of Wellington, The Dispatches of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, K.G. During his Various Campaigns in India, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, the Low Countries, and France from 1799 to 1818, 10 Vols. (London, 1838), Hill to Wellington, 13 June 1812 and Erskine to Hill, 25 July 1812, IX: 244 and 331-332; and Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, Supplementary Dispatches, Correspondence, and Memoranda, 14 Vols. (London, 1872), Soult to Feltre, 15 June 1812, IX: 50-51. Charles Oman, A History of the Peninsular War, 7 Vols. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1902-1930) remains the standard work on the Peninsula campaigns. Charles Esdaile, The Peninsular War: A New History (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003) provides the best single-volume work on the subject.
27. See a 6 September 1809 “Report to His Majesty of permission to extend to Colonel Lallemand of the 27th Regiment of Dragoons in Spain to take the waters in France and recover his health,” which found the Emperor agreeing and ordering French command to “Send the major of the regiment to replace him.” Napoleon, Unpublished Correspondence of Napoleon I, 3 Vols. (New York: Duffield & Co., 1913), III: 260.
28. Junot, Memoirs of Napoleon, His Court, and Family, II: 202, 294, 364.
29. In 1813, the Sixth Coalition of nearly every power in Europe cornered Napoleon in central Germany. Marshal Jacques MacDonald, duc de Taranto, invaded Silesia after the battles of Lützen and Baützen to relieve pressure on Napoleon's Grande Armée. He was defeated at the Katzbach by a Prussian army. See Michael Leggiere, Napoleon and Berlin: The Franco-Prussian War in North Germany, 1813 (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002).
30. Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout, prince d'Eckmühl, Le Maréchal Davout, prince d'Eckmühl, raconté par les siens et par lui-même, un dernier commandement l'exil et la mort (Paris: Didier, 1880), 42-72. See also And. Luntzmann, “Réponse au mémoire sur la défense de Hambourg, présenté par le maréchal Davout au Roi Louis XVIII,” 1 M 713, Papiers Davout, 1 M 934, Service Historique-Armée de Terre, Château de Vincennes, Paris.
31. See Jean-Baptiste Drouet d'Erlon, Vie militaire (Paris: G. Barba, 1844), 91-93; Charles-Tristan, comte de Montholon, Récits de la captivité de l'Empereur Napoléon à Sainte-Hélène, 2 Vols. (Paris: Paulin, 1847), I: XXXVI-XXXVII and 225; Anne-Jean-Marie-René Savary, duc de Rovigo, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de l'empereur Napoléon, 8 Vols. (Paris: A Bossange, 1828), VII: 360-365; Anne-Jean-Marie-René Savary, duc de Rovigo, Memoirs Illustrative of the History of the Emperor Napoleon, 4 Vols. (London, H. Colburn, 1828), IV: 228-258; Auguste-Frédéric-Louis Viesse de Marmont, duc de Raguse, Mémoires, 8 Vols. (Paris: Perrotin, 1857), VII: 81; Nicolas-Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie, Mémoire justificatif (Paris: Normat, 1815), 21-22Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, prince de Bénévent, Memoirs, 5 Vols. (New York : G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1891-1892), III: 102; for contemporary accounts of the conspiracy. François-Réné, vicomte de Chateaubriand, envisioned “une vaste conspiration;” see Chateaubriand, Rapport sur l'état de la France: fait au roi dans son conseil (Paris: A Gand, 1815), 25. Alexandre Dumas recalled the conspiracy from his childhood in his memoirs, see Mes memoirs, 5 Vols. (Paris: Gallimard, 1954-1958), IV: 213. Louis Gabriel Michaud, The Public and Private Life of Louis Philippe of Orleans, trans. V.L. Chimery (London: 1851), 64 argues that the conspirators “were but the tools of the Duke of Orleans, the secret mover in all the conspiracies.” Louis-Philippe, then duc d'Orléans, seemed to disavow this; see Extrait de mon journal du mois de mars 1815 (1816), 128. See also Hippolyte d'Aussy, Résumé impartiale de l'histoire de Napoléon: suivi des faits qui ont précédé l'expédition de M. le prince de Joinville à l'île Sainte-Hélène (Saintes : Lacroix, 1851), 69 and Niles, Niles' Weekly Register, 24 March and 5 August 1815, VIII: 170 and 399.
32. From the accession of the Valois branch of the Capetian dynasty in the fifteenth century to the fall of the Bourbon branch in 1830, the Orléans family became the highest-ranking princes of the blood, wielding immense power and influence. The duc d'Orléans proved to be the most powerful noble, other than the king, in France between 1500 and 1850. For example, Philippe, duc d'Orléans, served as regent to Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. Many Orléans princes became involved in intrigues against the crown, particularly during and after the French Revolution. See Amédée Britsch, La maison d'Orléans à la fin de l'ancien régime: la jeunesse de Philippe-Egalité (1747-1785) (Paris: Payot, 1926) ; Joseph Hugh Shennan, The Bourbons: the History of a Dynasty (London: Hambledon Continuum 2007).
33. See Eric A. Arnold, Fouché, Napoleon, and the General Police (Washington, DC: University Press of America, Inc., 1979); Hubert Cole, Fouché: The Unprincipled Patriot (New York: McCall Pub. Co., 1971); Stefan Zweig, Joseph Fouché: Portrait of a Politician (New York: Viking Press, 1930); Rovigo, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de l'empereur Napoléon, VII: 339. Madame Junot hinted at the involvement of Fouché, and perhaps Talleyrand: “It was said that this movement arose from a party belonging neither to the Emperor nor the Bourbons. I do not believe it.” See Junot, Memoirs of Napoleon, His Court, and Family, II: 525.
34. See Rovigo, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de l'empereur Napoléon, VII: 374-375.
35. Six, Dictionnaire biographique, II: 39.
36. Perhaps no single Napoleonic subject has received as much print attention as the 1815 campaign. The standard in the field remains Archibald Frank Becke, Napoleon and Waterloo: The Emperor's Campaign with the Armée du Nord (London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co., 1936). Jeremy Black, The Battle of Waterloo (New York: Random House, 2010) provides an excellent scholarly work written in a populist voice. See also Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout, prince d'Eckmühl, Correspondance Inédite, 1790-1815 (Paris: Perrin, 1887), 244; Henry Houssaye, 1815 (Paris: Perrin, 1905), 30 and especially 199; and Joachim Murat, Lettres et documents pour servir à l'histoire de Joachim Murat, 1767-1815 (Paris: Plon, 1908), I: xiv for Lallemand's role in the battle.
37. John Quincy Adams sardonically noted from London that “For as to another island of Elba, that was out of the question. That experiment would not be tried a second time.” Memoirs Comprising Portions of his Diary from 1795 to 1848, 12 Vols. (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1874-1877), XI: 220.
38. Napoleon believed, rightly, that the Prussians and Russians would treat him poorly, given the political and military devastation of both states in the prior twenty years. The Emperor had married Maria-Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia von Habsburg-Lothringen, daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria, in 1810. Why Napoleon did not throw himself on the mercy of his Habsburg father-in-law, who appeared amenable to sheltering him, remains one of the great mysteries of the period.
39. Damas-Hinard, Dictionnaire-Napoléon 324-330; Alphonse de Lamartine, Histoire de la restauration, 8 Vols. (Paris: Furne, 1851-1852), III: 41-47 ; Emmanuel-Auguste-Dieudonné, comte de Las Cases, Memoirs of the Life, Exile, and Conversations of the Emperor Napoleon (New York: Worthington Co., 1890), I: 19-34; Maitland, The Surrender of Napoleon; Montholon, Récits de la captivité de l'Empereur Napoléon à Sainte-Hélène, I: 26, 61-81; Niles, Niles' Weekly Register, IX: 421-423; Rovigo, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de l'empereur Napoléon, IV: 160-189; and Achille de Vaulabelle, Histoire des deux restaurations jusqu'à l'avènement de Louis-Philippe (de janvier 1813 à octobre 1830), 8 Vols. (Paris : Perrotin, 1860), III : 222-228.
40. Ironically, the proscription ordinance was drafted and promulgated by Fouché, serving on the king's advisory council. Lamartine, Histoire de la restauration, III: 146-148, reproduces the text of the ordinance. Lamartine surmised that Louis XVIII deferred the odious task of proscription to Fouché and Talleyrand as a way of damaging the public reputations of the two most powerful Napoleonic collaborators and centers of resistance within his government. Talleyrand, Memoirs, III: 171 found “the measure …an act of blundering folly, calculated only to create difficulties and dangers for the government.” Lallemand, Planat, Rovigo, and Marshal Michel Ney, prince de la Moskova, were among the proscribed. The first three were tried and sentenced in absentia to death; Ney was publically executed on 7 December 1815 after a trial presided over by his fellow marshals. See also Montholon, Récits de la captivité de l'Empereur Napoléon à Sainte-Hélène, I: 115.
41.See Nicolas Louis Planat de la Faye, Vie de Planat de la Faye (Paris, 1895) 239-290; Rovigo, Memoirs Illustrative of the History of the Emperor Napoleon, IV: 189-192; and Six, Dictionnaire biographique, II: 39-40.
42. Montholon, Récits de la captivité de l'Empereur Napoléon à Sainte-Hélène, I: 115; Planat, Ma vie, 239-287l and Rovigo, Memoirs Illustrative of the History of the Emperor Napoleon, IV: 189-193. Niles' Weekly Register breathlessly reported Lallemand's travels to the émigré community in the United States; see 31 August, 14 September, and 21 September 1816, XI: 9, 44, and 58. See also Marcel Doher, Proscrits et exiles après Waterloo (Paris: J. Peyronnet, 1965), 91-94.
43. See Niles, Niles' Weekly Register, 2/5 March 1817, XII: 208 and Jules Silvestre, De Waterloo à Sainte-Hélène (20 juin-16 octobre 1815): la Malmaison, Rochefort, Sainte-Hélène (Paris: F. Alcan, 1904), 177.
44. Las Cases, Memoirs of the Life, Exile, and Conversations of the Emperor Napoleon, II: 333.
45. Gabriel Girod de l'Ain, Joseph Bonaparte, le roi malgré lui (Paris: Perrin, 1970), 333 ff..
46. This community stretched from New York to Baltimore and west to New Orleans. Napoleonic officers found brother émigrés in the exiles from Saint-Dominique, who had settled in the United States beginning in the 1790s, as the Haitian Revolution seized their property and threatened their lives. See Maud'huy, “Notes sur les français retires aux etats-unis à l'issue des cent jours de 1815,” Revue des études Napoléoniennes XXXII (1931): 45-47; Montholon, Récits de la captivité de l'Empereur Napoléon à Sainte-Hélène, I: 210-211; Crawford, Joseph X 239-240. Lucien Bonaparte, II: 96. For the Haitian Revolution, see Phillippe R. Girard, The Slaves who Defeated Napoleon: Toussaint Loverture and the Haitian War of Independence, 1801-1804 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2011); CLR James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint l'Overture and the Haitian Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1963); and Thomas J. Watson, Jr., The Haitian Revolution (Providence: Brown University, 2010). Carl A. Brasseaux and Glenn R. Conrad, The Road to Louisiana: The Saint-Domingue Refugees, 1792-1809 (Lafayette, LA: Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1992) provides an excellent account of the plight and desires of the Saint-Domingue refugees.
47. See Charles Ingersoll, History of the Second War between the United States of America and Great Britain (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo, & Co., 1852) Second Series, I: 378-382.
48. Much money was collected for the colony, although little of it reached the colonists themselves. After several false starts, the colony established a small town. See Blaufarb, Bonapartists in the Borderlands, 33-85.
49. See Raymond Carr, Spain: 1808-1939 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966) and Donald E. Chipman, Spanish Texas 1519-1821 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992), 216-241.
50. John Quincy Adams to John Adams, 31 March 1817, Writings of John Quincy Adams, 6 Vols, ed. Worthington Chauncey Ford, VI: 168-172.
51. See Emilio Ocampo, The Emperor's Last Campaign: A Napoleonic Empire in America (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2009). John Quincy Adams, as Secretary of State, remained the United States' key figure in the situation. His unique political, diplomatic, and psychological insight illuminated the murky motivations and intentions of the various factions involved. See Adams to James Monroe, 10 April 1817; Adams to Monroe, 29 September 1817; Adams to Monroe, 8 October 1817; in Writings, VI: 174-175, 240-206, and 213-214. Adams corresponded frequently with French Ambassador Jean-Guillaume, baron Hyde de Neuville, whose concern with the situation reached apoplectic levels in the fall of 1817, culminating in an official request from the government of France for the arrest of Joseph Bonaparte. See Adams to Hyde de Neuville, 24 September 1817, Writings, VI: 190-191. Neuville offered an apology of sorts in his memoirs, noting that he “[felt] deep pity for these Frenchmen, exiled to this land as [he] had been. Were they not suffering for the crimes and errors caused by the ambition of one man; expiating, far from their families and countries, faults, committed it may be, from blindness and fidelity?” Jean-Guillaume, baron Hyde de Neuville, Memoirs of Baron Hyde de Neuville: Outlaw, Exile, Ambassador, 2 Vols. (London: Sands & Co., 1913), II: 81. See also Frank Owsley and Gene Smith, Filibusters and Expansionists: Jeffersonian Manifest Destiny, 1800-1821 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997).
52. See Blaufarb, Bonapartists in the Borderlands, 86-116 and Ocampo, The Emperor's Last Campaign, 271-278.
53. Jean-Just-Etienne Roy, The Adventures of a French Captain, at Present a Planter in Texas, Formerly a Refugee of Camp Asylum, trans. Blanche Murphy (New York: Benziger Brothers, 1878), 52.
54. See Maud'huy, “Notes sur les français retires aux etats-unis à l'issue des cent jours de 1815,” 46 and Roy, The Adventures of a French Captain, 58-76. Nathalie Dessens, From Saint-Domingue to New Orleans: Migration and Influences (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2007) provides an excellent overview of the refugees and their integration into American culture.
55. Foremost among these was Bertrand, comte de Clausel, who served as Lallemand's second in command. Clausel fought in the earliest of the Revolutionary wars, winning promotion to the rank of General in the mid-1790s. He continued to command through Napoleon's reign and fled into exile in America. He returned to France and achieved promotion to Marshal before his death in 1842. See Bertrand Clausel, Correspondance du Maréchal Clauzel (Paris: Larose, 1948) and Six, Dictionnaire biographique, I: 127-128. See also Doher, Proscrits et exilés après Waterloo, 121-146.
56. See William C. Davis, The Pirates Lafitte: The Treacherous World of the Corsairs of the Gulf (Orlando: Harcourt, 2005).
57. Roy, The Adventures of a French Captain, 60-76. Galveston Island served as the gateway to Spanish Texas from the Gulf of Mexico for much of the province's history. Jean Lafitte constructed a small outpost dubbed “Campeche” around 1808, making the area a natural staging point for the Champ d'Asile colonists. See Gary Cartwright, Galveston: A History of the Island (Fort Worth: TCU Press, 1998).
58. Hartmann and Millard, The Story of Champ d'Asile as Told by Two of the Colonists (Dallas: Book Club of Texas, 1937), 124.
59. Ibid., 130-147.
60. Ibid., 86-87; Roy, The Adventures of a French Captain, 73. Given the often-contentious relations with the native tribes of the region, this story may be more panegyric than truth. Regardless, Lallemand seems to have secured some agreement and trade with the local tribes.
61. Roy, The Adventures of a French Captain, 63 recorded that the colonists “thought nothing but a military government could be trusted to endure.”
62. Ibid., 72.
63. Ibid., 73-77. Many of the officers had served in the peninsula and thus spoke Spanish, easing the cross-cultural exchange.
64. Roy, The Adventures of a French Captain, 84.
65. Hartmann and Millard, The Story of the Champ d'Asile, 179 panegyrically records that “a father does not view with more joy and delight his dear children, brothers do not meet again with more pleasure” at the departure.
66. Ingersoll, History of the Second War between the United States of America and Great Britain, Second Series, I: 378.
67. Ibid., 179.
68. Contemporary notaries record the purchase of seven slaves and the sale of one by Lallemand between February and September 1819. See N. Broutin, 18 June 1819, Record 242, Acts 38; C. de Armas, 8 March 1819, Record 105, Acts 2; C. de Armas, 9 September 1819, Record 377, Acts 2a; C. de Armas, 13 April 1819, Record 161, Acts 2; and M. de Armas, 23 February 1819, Record 91, Acts 12, contained in the Notarial Archives, New Orleans, LA.
69. US Department of State, 1820 Census, 2 February 1822, lists “General Lallemand” residing alone in a household with fifteen slaves. No record available to the author indicated that Lallemand's wife accompanied him to America or that the couple had any children that survived childhood. See also Deléry, Napoleon's Soldiers in America, 57-95, which notes that “Charles shunned social life. He wanted adventures and men to command.”
70. Mikko Macchione and Kerry McCaffety, Napoleon House (New Orleans: Cheers Publishing, 2006) provides an excellent introduction to the “urban legend” surrounding the conspiracy.
71. See Napoleon, “Last Will of Napoleon, Late the Emperor of France,” in Joseph Timothy Haydn, Dictionary of Dates and Universal Reference (London: Edward Moxon, 1841), 551.
72. Bluch, Le bonapartisme, 138 note 42. Pierre Branda, “Le testament de Napoléon: une affaire d'argent avant tout,” Napoleon 1er 36 (2006): 6-16, argues that the money ta Napoleon left in his will, in excess of 210 million francs, did not exist, and his bankers and family members refused to pay all but a small fraction of his bequests out of their own resources. In all likelihood, Lallemand never received more than half of the money willed to him.
73. Court filings between 1819 and 1821 indicate a long-running financial dispute between Lallemand and one “J. Rabassa” relating to the transfer of property, probably land, and a sum of money around $200. Lallemand appears to have won the judgment but liable for the sum of money, which he proved unable to pay. See J. Rabassa vs. Charles Lallemand, 22 January 1821, #3622; Baudry and Montearel vs. Charles Lallemand, 26 December 1820, #3609; Simon Ducoreau and Villert vs. Charles Lallemand, 19 May 1820, #3263; Abat vs. Lallemand, 21 September 1820, #3511; First Judicial District Court Records, New Orleans Public Library.
74. In 1823, Louis XVIII dispatched an army of five corps, called the “Hundred-Thousand Sons of Saint Louis,” to support the monarchy of Ferdinand. Lallemand's forces supported the constitutionalist cause, centered on Cadiz. The Franco-Spanish royalist forces crushed the insurgency, uniting Spain under Ferdinand's rule and inaugurating the White Terror of repression against all but the most ardent royalists. See Charles W. Fehrenbach, ‘Moderados and Exaltados: the liberal opposition to Ferdinand VII, 1814-1823” in Hispanic American Historical Review 50 (1970), 52-69 and especially André Lebourleaux, Le croisade des cent mille fils de Saint-Louis: l'expédition française en Espagne de 1823 (Coulommiers: Dualpha, 2006).
75. Niles, Niles' Weekly Register, 9 August 1823, XXIV: 352 and Six, Dictionnaire biographique, II: 40. Doher, Proscrits et exilés après Waterloo, 175-181 offers a concise account of Lallemand's expedition.
76. Six, Dictionnaire biographique, II: 40.
77. Little record of this period of Lallemand's life remains. Six, ibid., puts him in Brussels for a period of a few months, returning to New York in late 1823. That he would have joined Joseph Bonaparte's circle in Philadelphia and New Jersey is indubitable.
78. Following the death of his brother Louis XVIII in late 1824, Charles X became king of France and attempted to reconstruct the government as an absolutist monarchy. His ultramontane measures culminated in the July Ordinances, which were promulgated in July 1830 and caused massive popular outrage. On 26 July, riots began in the eastern portions of Paris, in the neighborhoods surrounding the former site of the Bastille. Over the next three days, the riots intensified and spread. Charles fled on 29 July, the third day of the Revolution. A new legislature convened and dismantled the monarchy in favor of a new constitutional monarchy under Louis-Philippe I, formerly the duc d'Orléans. See Vincent Woodrow Beach, Charles X of France: His Life and Times (Boulder, CO: Pruett Pub, 1971) and J. Lucas-Dubreton, The Restoration and the July Monarchy, trans. E.F. Buckley (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1929).
79. Frédéric Bluche, Le bonapartisme: aux origines de la droite autoritaire (1800-1850) (Paris: Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1980), 123-192 and especially 193-228; and Peter Hicks, “Joseph Bonaparte and the ‘Réunion de famille' of 1832-33” in Napoleonica La Revue 8 (Paris: La Fondation Napoleon, 2010): 30-52.
80. See Alexandre Dumas, Histoire de la vie politique et privée de Louis-Philippe (Paris: Orban, 1981), 178;Six, Dictionnaire biographique, II: 40;Talleyrand, Mémoires, IV: 26, quoting a letter from Charles-Joseph, comte de Bresson, 17 January 1830.
81. Talleyrand, Mémoires, IV: 26.
82. Joseph Bonaparte to [Gilbert du Motier, marquis de] Lafayette, 7 September 1830; Joseph to [David-Maurice-Joseph Mathieu de la Redorte], 10 September 1830; Joseph to [Claude François de] Meneval, 10 September 1830; Joseph to [Prince Klemens Wenzel von] Metternich, 18 September 1830; Joseph to [Philippe-Antoine] Merlin, 18 September 1830; Joseph to [Jean-Thomas Arraghi de Casanova,] duc de Padoue, 19 September 1830; Joseph to [André-François] Miot de Mélito, 21 September, 1830; Joseph to [Pierre-Louis] Roederer, 21 September 1830; Joseph to Mathieu Dumas, 1 September 1830; Joseph to [Jean-Maximilien] Lamarque, 26 September 1830; Joseph to [Jean-Baptiste] Jourdan, 27 September 1830; Joseph to [Antoine-Claude-Jacques Joseph,] comte Boulay de la Meurthe, 12 October 1830; in Joseph Bonaparte, Mémoires et correspondance politique et militaire du roi Joseph, 10 Vols. (Paris: Perrotin, 1853-1854), X: 335-337, 345-367.
83. Joseph Bonaparte to [Florent Simon] Andrieux, 12 October 1830, Mémoires et correspondance politique et militaire, X: 365-366.
84. Meneval proved a committed Bonapartist, as did the duke of Padua; and Lafayette personally offered his services to Joseph in support of the Bonapartist cause in 1825. Lamarque is named as a “Napoleonist” in December 1831. Metternich harbored the opposite sentiment – fearful of a Bonapartist uprising that would remove the duke of Reichstadt from Habsburg control and reinvigorate France as Austria's most dangerous enemy. See Hicks, “Joseph Bonaparte and the ‘Réunion de famille' of 1832-33.” Miot de Mélito, Roederer, and Boulay de la Meurthe had all served the French government between 1789 and 1815 and likely held Bonapartist sympathies. Mathieu married into the Bonaparte clan via marriage to Joseph's sister-in-law. See “Maximilien Lamarque,” “Maurice-David-Joseph, comte de Mathieu de la Redorte,” “Philippe-Antoine, comte Merlin,” and “Pierre-Louis, comte Roederer,” in Biographie nouvelle des contemporains, X: 388-393, XII: 229-238, XIII: 96-97, and XVIII, 139-150; and André-François, comte Miot de Mélito, Memoirs, 2 Volumes (London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington; 1888), II: 752-758. Dumas and Jourdan had similarly served the Napoleonic government but held more moderate republican or constitutionalist views; see Mathieu Dumas, Memoirs of His Own Time, 2 Volumes (Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1839) and René Valentin, Le maréchal Jourdan, 1762-1833 (Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle, 1956).
85. See Bluche, Le bonapartisme,205-229; Hicks, “Joseph Bonaparte and the ‘Réunion de famille' of 1832-33”; and Ingersoll, History of the Second War between the United States of America and Great Britain, Second Series I: 388.
86. Between 1830 and his death in 1837, Lallemand served a variety of positions as inspector and commander of various units in the French military establishment. These included Inspector-General of the military academy at Saint-Cyr, command of the Fifth and Tenth Military Divisions, and promotion to Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor. See Six, Dictionnaire biographique, II: 40.
87. Honoré de Balzac, La Rabouilleuse (Paris: Garnier, 1966).