An international scholarly online history journal on First and Second Empire subjects: articles, bibliographies, book reviews, in english and in french

Delve deeper into Napoleonic history here in our section on the history of the two empires. Alongside a section for those just starting, there are many articles, images with commentary, close-ups and special dossiers for the serious Napoleonic enthusiast.

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Timelines : The Mexican Campaign, 1862-1867
In pictures : The crossing of the bridge at Arcole - Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile
Articles : A new Napoleonic campaign for Montereau


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Fact file

Born Kersmarch (Hungary), 1735, died 1804.
Distinguished himself during the Seven Years War (1756-63)
Extinguished the revolt of the Walachians in Transylvania, 1788
Made general in the war against the Turks, 1790
Temporary head of the Austrian army in Italy when Melas was ill, 1799
Victory over Schérer at Magnano, 5 April 1800
Retook the citadel of Mantua, 1800

Replaced Archduke Charles as head of the Austrian army in Germany but beaten by the French he was forced to resign his command

According to Jomini, Kray was ‘vigorous, intrepid [with] a great ability to sum up a particular situation and remarkable sang-froid. Incontestably, he was the best Austrian general after Archduke Charles'.

Further reading

Biographisches Lexicon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Vienna, 1856 (57 volumes)
Longworth, P., The Art of Victory: The life and achievements of Generalissimo Suvorov, London: Constable, 1965
Tranié, J., J. C. Carmigniani, Napoléon Bonaparte: 2eme campagne d'Italie, Paris: Pygmalion/Gérard Watelet, 1991


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