TOMORY Leslie, Progressive Enlightenment: The Origins of the Gaslight Industry, 1780-1820
Description: In Progressive Enlightenment, Leslie Tomory examines the origins of the gaslight industry, from invention to consolidation as a large integrated urban network. Tomory argues that gas was the first integrated large-scale technological network, a designation usually given to the railways. He shows how the first gas network was constructed and stabilized through the introduction of new management structures, the use of technical controls, and the application of means to constrain the behavior of the users of gas lighting. Tomory begins by describing the contributions of pneumatic chemistry and industrial distillation to the development of gas lighting, then explores the bifurcation between the Continental and British traditions in distillation technology. He examines the establishment and consolidation of the new industry by the Birmingham firm Boulton & Watt, and describes the deployment of the network strategy by the entrepreneur Frederick Winsor. Tomory argues that the gas industry represented a new wave of technological innovation in industry because of its dependence on formal scientific research, its need for large amounts of capital, and its reliance on business organization beyond small firms and partnerships--all of which signaled a departure from the artisanal nature and limited deployment of inventions earlier in the Industrial Revolution. Gas lighting was the first important realization of the Enlightenment dream of science in the service of industry.
Place and publisher: Cambridge: MIT Press
Date of publication: 2012
Number of pages: 360
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"...The French Piedmontese campaign in 1859 was carefully coordinated by the two powers. It required meticulous political and military planning to succesfully wage war and oust the Habsburgs from the Italian peninsula. This war is often overlooked in military histories outside of Italy, and overshadowed by the American Civil War and the Wars of German Unification. Nevertheless, the Second War of Italian Independence witnessed the first strategic and operational use of railroads, steamships, rifled muskets and artillery. Furthermore, the battles fought in 1859 invovled the largest armies since the Napoleonic Wars..."
Place and publisher: Rome: Ufficio Storico
Date of publication: 2014
Number of pages: 380
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