An international scholarly online history journal on First and Second Empire subjects: articles, bibliographies, book reviews, in english and in french

Delve deeper into Napoleonic history here in our section on the history of the two empires. Alongside a section for those just starting, there are many articles, images with commentary, close-ups and special dossiers for the serious Napoleonic enthusiast.

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Timelines : The Mexican Campaign, 1862-1867
Dossier thématiques : A close-up on: the Mexican campaign, 1862-1867
In pictures : The crossing of the bridge at Arcole - Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile


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A timeline, an article or two, some biographies, a few images, and a bibliography, in short a close-up on a topic related to the First and Second French Empires. You can search for other close-ups either by keyword or by theme.

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A close-up on: the Code Pénal


Introduction | Documents | Commentary | Timeline | Images

<i>First page of the Code Pénal, © Fondation Napoléon</i>

First page of the Code Pénal, © Fondation Napoléon

The Code Pénal, one text of the larger codification movement that took place under Napoleon, was introduced in 1810 to replace the numerous laws adopted during the Revolution's ten-year period. Defining crimes and their respective punishments, it was the text intended to safeguard a French society which had recently been reorganised by the Code Civil. It took nearly ten years of discussion before the text would be ready for promulgation, which would take place on 22 February, 1810. The code remained in place in France until 1 March, 1994, when it was replaced by the new Code Pénal.



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