The Princess and the would-be First Lady: Two accounts of a meeting in 1822 by Charlotte Bonaparte and Louisa Adams

Author(s) : Jenny Spencer
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The Princess and the would-be First Lady: Two accounts of a meeting in 1822 by Charlotte Bonaparte and Louisa Adams
Left: Charlotte Bonaparte by Charles B. Lawrence, right: Louisa Adams in 1821 by Gilbert Stuart

In the late summer of 1822 in Bordentown New Jersey, USA. , two influential women – Charlotte Bonaparte and Louisa Adams – crossed paths. In the weeks that followed, these two women were to become well-acquainted and spent much time in each other’s company. With remarkable serendipity, both Charlotte and Louisa wrote independently of their time spent together in the form of diary entries and letters. Whilst the letters of Louisa Adams have been in the public domain for some time, Charlotte Bonaparte’s diary entries are a relatively recent discovery, and this is the first time that these two parallel accounts of the same events have been placed side-by-side.Charlotte’s diary can be found at the Fondazione Primoli, in Rome, Italy, whilst Louisa’s correspondence has been digitised by the American National Archives and is available freely online. For a detailed account on Louisa Adams see Shannon Selin “Louisa Adams, social charmer” and When Louisa Adams met Joseph Bonaparte.

Charlotte-Napoléone Bonaparte (1802-1839) was born at Mortefontaine, her father’s estate and country house situated to the north of Paris. She was the younger daughter of Joseph Bonaparte, King of Spain and Naples and Julie Clary, born into an extremely wealthy merchant family from Marseilles. Charlotte-Napoléone was named for her paternal grandfather, Charles Bonaparte and world-famous uncle, Napoleon I. The young Princess spent the majority of her happy childhood living in luxury at Mortefontaine, where she was mostly brought up by her mother, unusually for somebody of her status at the time. Aside from three months spent in Naples in 1808, Charlotte, along with her mother and sister, Zénaïde, never lived with her father, but stayed at home in France. However, Charlotte’s peaceful childhood was to be changed forever by Napoleon’s abdication and exile in 1814. Charlotte and her family briefly took refuge in Switzerland, before returning to the French capital upon Napoleon’s return to Paris after the Elban episode.  At the conclusion of the Hundred Days, Joseph left immediately for America, whilst Julie remained in Paris with the girls, having obtained dispensation to stay on the grounds of ill health. After one year however, Julie and her daughters were forced into exile. They arrived in Frankfurt in 1816, where they spent four unhappy years; Charlotte later described the city in a letter to a friend as “unbearable”. Julie eventually decided to move her family to Brussels, supposedly for health reasons. The Belgian city seemed to suit Charlotte much better than Frankfurt, and she enjoyed its “cultural vivacity”, as well as the presence of many other French exiles, including the painter Jacques-Louis David, with whom the artistically gifted Princess studied. In 1821, at the age of eighteen, Charlotte left Brussels to join her father in America. She docked in Philadelphia on 21 December 1821, after a stormy voyage, before travelling on to her father’s New Jersey estate, Point Breeze.

Throughout her stay in America, Charlotte had the opportunity, through her father, to meet many distinguished people, including diplomats, politicians and socialites. In September 1822, almost a year after her arrival, she would make the acquaintance of one of America’s most influential women at the time, Louisa Adams.

Louisa Adams (1775-1852) was the London-born and Paris-educated wife of John Quincy Adams, who in 1822 was the American Secretary of State. Louisa was cosmopolitan, and renowned in American society circles for her social skills and varied accomplishments, which she had refined through years spent as a diplomat’s wife in Berlin, St Petersburg and London. As the daughter of an American diplomat and an English mother who had spent time in France, where her family took refuge during the American Revolution, Louisa spoke French like a native.

In September 1822, Louisa Adams, who would later become First Lady of the United States of America in 1824, when her husband would be elected to the post of President, had spent the summer nursing her sick brother in Philadelphia, and was invited to stay with some close friends, Joseph and Emily Hopkinson in nearby Bordentown. Joseph Hopkinson was not only a close friend and strong political supporter of John Quincy Adams, but also Joseph Bonaparte’s trusted lawyer, who often handled official matters on his behalf. Soon after Louisa’s arrival at her friends’ house on 16 September, the Hopkinsons introduced Louisa to the Count of Survilliers (as Joseph called himself in America). In the weeks that followed, Mrs Adams and the Bonapartes became acquainted and saw each other frequently; Mrs Adams was even persuaded to extend her stay with the Hopkinsons. Fascinatingly, we have access to two separate, contemporary accounts of the meeting of these two women. Charlotte Bonaparte wrote down some memoirs of her notable encounters and experiences in America in a personal diary, whilst Louisa Adams wrote regular letters to her husband during her stay, detailing her day to day activities as well as her newfound acquaintances.

Charlotte’s account begins in medias res, discussing a recent meeting with the presidential candidate Mr Clay, with whom she was much taken. She then moves on to describe her encounter with Mrs Adams. The Princess writes:

“…Supporters of Adams, another candidate for the presidency, claimed that I would give my support to Mrs. Adams, whom I would later come to know well: she was a likable woman, who wrote perfectly. She had travelled extensively and had been to all of the courts of Europe; she could recount a vast number of curious anecdotes, which rendered her conversation lively, sharp and much sought after in society circles, where she was renowned for her excellent manners. During one summer, she spent a fortnight at the house of Mrs. Hopkinsons, whose family was entirely devoted to her [Mrs Adams’] husband, and some of Adams’ close supporters brought her to meet us. I remember well the good impression the sound of her voice made upon me; when on returning from a walk, I met her, rather late, with many ladies waiting together for us in the salon. Mrs. Adams, who was dressed quite simply, replied in very good French, a French that was sweet and elegant, to the few English words that I spoke to her. After that, she returned almost every day. We went on long boat trips, and in the evenings she dined with us, and with the folk we had invited that day; a large portion of the day therefore was spent in each other’s company, as we tended to retire very late after long evenings spent walking or playing music. She also wanted to hear us [my Father and myself] declaim; sometimes in the evenings we read aloud, Iphigénie Iphigénie, play written by Jean Racine in 1674., Athalie Athalie, play written by Jean Racine in 1691. etc.. she seemed charmed; as for the others, though they did not understand French they too listened attentively. We also spent time looking at engravings or albums, following the preferred American custom of sitting round a table and spending hours at a stretch examining engravings.

We also lunched with the Leunays one time, in Bristol, at their pretty house by the Delaware. Mrs Adams was at the lunch, with her niece. She gave me a piece of music, and I gifted her a painting of some Point Breeze oleander. I have the letter which she sent to me upon returning.Text transcribed and published by Valeria Petitto in Charlotte Bonaparte – Fragments de Mémoires 1822-1824 in Gorgone, Giulia, Tittoni, Maria Elisa (eds), Charlotte Bonaparte: Dama di molto spirito, Rome: Museo Napoleonico/Sillabe, 2010, pp. 232-35.

In contrast to this short extract from Charlotte’s diary, which covers the events of two weeks, Louisa Adams wrote five long letters to her husband describing the events of her stay in impressive detail. Her first letter, dated 16 September 1822, described her first encounter with Joseph Bonaparte, as well as his daughter, Charlotte.

“… After dinner we set out to walk to the Spring – We had got about half way when we met the Count Survillier, who stopped and spoke to the Ladies, and was introduced to me: when he politely asked us to walk with him through his grounds to which I assented – I however behaved very much like a fool on the occasion: for their Kings and no Kings place us in a very awkward situation; between the fear of wounding their feelings, and the natural antipathy which I have to courting, what the world call great folks, and of appearing to arrogate upon my own elevated station; which though, it may be transient, is while I possess it thought much of by others – I spoke sometime to him in English, but at last addressed him in French – He showed me two very fine paintings, and displayed all the beauties of his grounds with much attention, offering us flowers which he cut himself, and Peaches which he selected and presented to each – As the evening was rapidly setting in, I was anxious to get home; but he was so urgent for me to see his daughter that I consented to walk in, and was introduced to her little Ladyship, who I thought a very pleasing and well bred young woman – She is not handsome; though I think her countenance very expressive, and the style and character of her face pleased me, although in general it produces a contrary effect – She was urgent in her invitation to me, to stay; and expressed a desire to become more acquainted; to all of which I answered suitably declining her civility, on the plea of leaving Borden Town immediately…”

In her second epistle, dated 19 September 1822, Mrs Adams continued her account of her stay with the Hopkinsons.

“…While we were at Table the count and his daughter paid us a visit and left Cards – and in the Evening we received an invitation to a water party at four o’clock tomorrow afternoon; and to spend the Evening which we graciously accepted… The Count and Countess received us in a very friendly and sociable way, and we chatted on various subjects, until we were called to what he terms Tea; that is a dinner in all its forms with the addition of Tea and Coffee – He is very handsome I think – I have already said very much like Napoleon, the form of the face being nearly the same; but the whole countenance expressing good humour, and benevolence without those strong characteristick traits, which rendered the Emperor’s so striking – There is a want of care in his manner au premier abord, that wears off immediately in conversation, and his voice is very pleasant—His daughter is very small with a countenance which I admire very much, it is rather pensive; but when she smiles there is an animation and sweetness in her eyes, that makes her quite handsome—Her manners are extremely modest and unassuming, and she is too diffident to converse freely at first; but improves every moment on acquaintance—She is just eighteenCharlotte Bonaparte was actually 19 years old, and only one month shy of her 20th birthday when she met Louisa Adams., very simple in her dress—At dinner I had some conversation with the Count; he enquired particularly if I knew Pardo, and Mondragone? Both of whom he spoke of with affection, but particularly the last—He told me he knew Mrs. CrawfordSusanna Crawford, wife of William Crawford, who was the ex U.S. Minister to France (1813-1815) and also a presidential candidate in the 1824 election.; and was very inquisitive about Washington, which he said he heard was very brilliant in Winter, and a pleasant residence—Mentioned that he was acquainted with Mrs. HayEliza Monroe Hay, daughter of 5th U.S. President James Monroe, and wife of Virginia attorney George Hay. She grew up in France, and was a classmate of Hortense de Beauharnais, who would become a lifelong friend., and that she was so fond of France, that he believed she would do any thing to get there again, but that he understood she had an old husband who would not go—He asked me a good deal about the Corps Diplomatique, said he had seen AnduagaThe Chevalier de Anduaga, Spanish envoy to the United Kingdom. and Mr. CanningGeorge Canning, British Foreign Secretary 1807-1809 and 1822-1827, later British Prime Minister April-August 1827. at Ballston Springs; and that the latter appeared to be a very pleasing man—When we rose from the Table he showed me his fine pictures, and regretted that I had not seen them by day light, entreating me to come again; and politely saying he would take no denial: after which we seated ourselves round a table, and examined his daughters drawings, and some curious paintings on copper of natural history, from all the known parts of the Globe—We then talked of the Theatre, and he asked me if I had seen TalmaFrançois-Joseph Talma (1763-1826), French actor.; and I took the opportunity of hinting how much I should be gratified if he would read a tragedy to us, as I had heard that he piques himself upon his Talent, having studied with La RiveJean Mauduit (1747-1827), French actor known on stage as “Larive” or “La Rive”., who he told me he had taken to Naples with him, and made him director of the French Theatre there—He seemed much pleased at the request, and immediately sent for his Book, and chose the Tragedy of AndromaqueAndromaque, play written by Jean Racine in 1667.—I was almost sorry for the choice as I could not help thinking that in the fate of Marie Louise, there was a little similitude; for both her Son and herself became hostages to Austria, though under different circumstances—He desired his daughter to read with him, and she took the parts of Andromaque, and Hermione, and it is long very long since I have had such a treat; for you certainly enjoy your present situation at the expense of all our old and quiet pleasures, and enjoyments—I most ardently wished you had been of the party, and our Tragedy would have been delightful—The Countess reads elegantly, and they have both the style and manner of Talma, with a little less energy; which he told me was more the manner of La Rive. To me however this was an improvement as I do not love to see the passions “torn to rags and tatters;” and do by no means think ranting an embellishment, or an expression of true feelings—I am not connoisseur enough to say any thing more of the paintings, than that they are many of them in the finest style, and that to you they would afford a treat—There is a Titian that is exquisite; some Vernets and Teniers and Murillos that are beautiful; besides many other that which it is almost sacrilege to the fine Arts for such a blunderer as I am to speak of—The young Countess has two young Ladies with her, who are not of a piece with the establishment—They are the daughters of a French Physician in Philadelphia, and it is seldom you meet with Girls in our Country whose manner and appearance have been so little cultivated—They however speak French which is at present an object; but one which will soon cease to be of any consequence, as both the Count and his daughter begin to speak English fluently…”

In a third letter to her husband, dated 21 September 1822, Louisa Adams continued to describe her interactions with Joseph and Charlotte.

“This Evening the Count and his family spent here with Mrs. Hopkinson; and we laboured hard to amuse them, and I fear did not atchieve the enterprize; as I am sure I was devoured by ennui…We had no Gentlemen, but Mr. F Hopkinson and his Brother, and Capt [Parry]—The Countess does not understand much English, and Joseph speaks it very little; and the Ladies of this family will not speak French—You may therefore imagine our difficulty; added to which-the young Lady looks for amusement from every body, without making the least exertion to amuse herself—Early in the Evening he invited us to breakfast with him the next day […] After breakfast we walked in the Gardens which are very extensive and handsomely laid out; and we viewed the paintings some of which are immensely valuable; worthy of better judges than our motley party. Every thing about him is handsome, and in this Country makes a great show! After having viewed these fine things some time; we all went on board the Barge as I was fond of the water, and rowed about until the Steam boat was ready to start: when we reshipped our Bristol Cargos; and contained our promenade up the Creek: where he ordered fishing tackle to be prepared and every thing made ready for that amusement, as he understood that it was my favorite diversion. I however objected to this and as two of the young Ladies were indisposed, requested if it was agreeable to the Countess to Land He said never mind the Countess, she must do as she was desired; and we were accordingly landed upon a bank which was so steep I found it impossible to ascend—and Miss Mease Probably a daughter of Dr James Mease, name unknown., ElizabethElizabeth Hopkinson, only surviving daughter of Mr and Mrs Hopkinson. and myself mounted in a more accessible place: and I found the Count already there to assist us with his arm; but seeing me very much exhausted by the effort of climbing—he politely sent for his Carriage, and we were driven to a small house in the Wood, where we had a collation which he was very busy in assisting his Servants to prepare—We then got into the Carriage; Mrs & Miss Hopkinson and myself, to return to the House to take leave; but the Servant insisted on it he had orders to take us home, and I was thankful to reach it, although I confess not to take french leave so cavalierly—The other part of the party thought they were going to have a fine dinner, and were shockingly balked when they found themselves obliged to follow us; grumbling cruelly at my not having insisted on the boys putting us down—I laughed and told them that I had had quite sufficient; as they were sent home to bed. […] At twelve o clock we set out to visit the Countess that I might take my final leave; intending positively to leave Borden Town tomorrow morning; and likewise to apologize to them for my sudden desertion of the party the day before. As we walked up the Count was standing at the door; and as soon as he saw me he laughed and asked me if I was recovered; as he supposed I had been much indisposed and I immediately explained I was both vexed and amused at his servants behaviour; and reproachfully said he never could have suspected me of being capable of an impoliteness. I asked for the Lady intimating my wish to take leave—but she was taking her Drawing Lesson or rather sitting for her portrait, and I would not disturb her—She however made her appearance just as her father had invited us to see a Venus of Titian, that would have enchanted you; and which he keeps close to his bed; I could not affect modesty as I had said, that I had seen a number of fine pictures in Europe, and he put his hands over his eyes, as if very much shocked making grimaces, and hanging his head, saying that all the American Ladies were so distressed, and ashamed, that he was obliged to hide them—He shewed me two beautiful miniatures of his Mother, one of his Wife, and one of his daughter; a number of superb Gun’s: a Manufactory of which he had established at Naples of a very light and beautiful kind: 1 of which he sent to Alexander; another to the King of Bavaria; and 1 to Napoleon—He is fond of Shooting and an excellent shot—He likewise brought out some fine old Books, with illuminated plates and some beautiful modern editions, and a number of Knicknacs such as the french delight so much in—and a fine likeness of Napoleon—While we were all in the rooms very much amused, a Note was received from Miss Keene inviting us to go to breakfast with her on Wednesday and stating that she had postponed her journey to Town, that she might have the pleasure of seeing the Counts family, Mrs. Hopkinson’s, and Miss Mary and myself—I immediately declined, stating that I must return to Town to make arrangements for my return home: and that I could not delay it any longer: to which they all refused their consent, and he said if I did not go, they must all decline; and if I would accompany them he would have his barge ready and we would all go together—I told him I had been absent from home three Months; and asked him if he did not think that I was doing wrong: he said it was to be sure a long time; but two or three days could not make much difference; and made Miss Mease sit down and write an answer of acceptance…”

In a fourth letter to her husband, dated 27 September 1822, Mrs Adams described her last days in Bordentown before making her leave to rejoin her husband.

“…In the Evening the Count and Countess came to visit us and sat above an hour conversing very pleasantly though not very favourably of Miss Keene who appears to be no favorite with him notwithstanding her evident desire to attract his attention—The young Lady [i.e. Charlotte] seems to have taken a sort of partiality for me; and politely expressed a wish that I would prolong my stay in Borden Town as my visit had really afforded them the greatest pleasure, and they were happy to have had the opportunity of becoming acquainted with me—On taking leave the Count insisted that we should all dine with him on the Sunday as a last parting; and Mrs. Hopkinson engaged for the whole; upon which he came to me—but having a very severe cold I thought it would be prudent to decline and made my excuse to which however he would not listen—A Miss Mortimer a young Lady just returned from France, a fine Girl but a most inveterate talker was one of the company—but he pointedly omitted her in consequence of her having questioned the poor little Countess, either too closely concerning France; and treating her with more familiarity than is usually expected in any country—without an introduction—He is very much pleased at my wearing an american Bonnet; and say’s the Ladies in this Country sacrifice their patriotism to their vanity. […] At four o’clock we went to Point Breeze, and immediately after a consultation took place to decide how we should amuse ourselves; and it was determined that the barge should be prepared, and that we should row down the Creek for an hour or two previous to dinner—We walked into the Grounds, and went to see some pictures in a house belonging to him, in which the Strangers are lodged who visit him. […] We had a charming dinner and afterwards the Tragedy of Iphigenie of Racine, which he read in a fine style assisted by his daughter, Miss Monges, and Capt Sarry—Mr Hopkinson say’s he is a fine Scholar; and he appears to me to be a man of taste and judgement, without parade and ostentation—Egotism à la Morgan—On parting I thanked him for his polite attention, as well as his daughters; and expressed a hope that I might be enabled to make some slight return at some future day—to which they replied they only wished that my stay could be prolonged among them, and that they regretted very much the necessity of my departure…”

In a final letter, dated 2 October 1822, written just before her departure from Borden Town, Mrs Adams mentioned a parting gift she received from Charlotte Bonaparte.

“…While we were sitting Count Survilliers’ Servant came with a small painting from Mademoiselle begging my acceptance of it as a remembrance, it being done by herself—I wrote my thanks and took the same opportunity of expressing my sense of her fathers attention…”

Having access to these two parallel accounts written by two important women in the early 19th century offers us the opportunity to examine events from a female, perspective. The female voice directs us in particular to look more closely at typical practises of sociability, or, put more simply, how these women and their peers socialised with each other during this period.

The ability to converse well was highly prized in upper class society and was one of the keys to successful socialising. Charlotte mentions in her diary that Louisa Adams’ interesting conversation and perfect manners made her “much sought after in society circles” and had created a reputation which preceded her arrival in Bordentown. Indeed, Mrs Adams’ social skills were such that many suggest without her ability to win people over and her success as the hostess of many dazzling parties, her socially-awkward husband would never have been successful in his later bid for the presidency; Louisa herself described her efforts as “my campaigne”. In her letters to her husband, Louisa criticises Charlotte Bonaparte’s conversational skills and describes her as a conversational burden of sorts, looking “for amusement from everybody, without making the least exertion to amuse herself”, however she later amends her harsh first judgement, saying that though the Princess “is too diffident to converse freely at first” she “improves every moment on acquaintance”. Though Louisa is quick to dismiss Charlotte’s conversation as sub-par, it is worth considering that the Princess may have not had many opportunities to socialise, restricted as she was in her choice of companions, and emerging from more than five years in exile. In America, Charlotte had had the choice of spending time with the young ladies of Bordentown, who, though they were deemed to be more ‘suitable’ company, did not speak French, or with the French companions provided to her, daughters of a local French physician whom Mrs Adams decried in a letter to her husband as girls “whose manner and appearance have been so little cultivated”. It is possible that the arrival of Mrs Adams in Bordentown provided Charlotte with her first opportunity since her departure from Brussels the previous autumn to converse freely in French with an ‘intellectual equal’, somebody who could appreciate poetry and fine art, and also who could discuss aspects of court life, and the commonalities of their European upbringings. Perhaps Charlotte was not, in fact, conversationally inadequate, but merely out of practise and unused to the vivacious sociability which Louisa Adams brought to the party.

Aside from good conversation, other social activities which displayed skill, such as musical performances and dramatic readings were popular occupations. Charlotte mentions in her diary that Mrs Adams “seemed charmed” to hear the Bonapartes declaim together, a fact corroborated by Louisa in her letter to her husband, where she writes that the Count reads “in a fine style” and that “it is very long since I have had such a treat”. Despite differences in culture, it would appear that American and European ideas of sociability amongst upper class ladies were largely compatible. Good conversation, musical performances, play readings as well as excursions such as walks in the grounds of Point Breeze or boating trips on the Delaware seemed to be acceptable activities for both parties, though it is true that Louisa Adams was almost European herself, having spent her entire childhood abroad, and later on, much of her married life as a diplomat’s wife in Prussia and Russia. Charlotte does however specifically note the American hobby of examining engravings, clearly something with which she was unfamiliar.

Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, the relationship between Charlotte Bonaparte and Louisa Adams seemed to blossom within this social context over the brief course of these two weeks. They were mismatched in a number of ways. Firstly, at 19 years old, Charlotte was less than half Louisa’s age. Louisa was far more worldly and experienced than Charlotte, and yet age seems to have been of little consequence in this instance. There was also a question of rank and status which Louisa herself touched upon in her first letter to her husband, “their Kings and no Kings place us in a very awkward situation”. There was no precedent set for how a highly respected wife of the Secretary of State should interact with an exiled Princess, and, especially in America, this could have created some initial embarrassment. However, any awkward ideas about rank and station seem to have been quickly overcome, and the two ladies seemed to have related to each other as equals. Of course, there is the possibility that the relationship which sprang up between these two women was more one-sided than the texts themselves would have us believe. They can be read in a way which suggests that maybe Louisa was less happy to be at Point Breeze than Joseph and Charlotte were to receive her. Louisa mentions numerous times that she must make her departure from Point Breeze only to have the Bonapartes insist that she extend her stay, of course it is possible that she was happy to stay longer, but it is equally possible that she was unhappy and simply too polite to turn down the invitation.

Having spent so much time in each other’s company, it seems that Charlotte Bonaparte became quite attached to Louisa Adams during her short stay in Bordentown, with Louisa herself remarking that “the young Lady seems to have taken a sort of partiality for me; and politely expressed a wish that I would prolong my stay in Borden Town”.  When the time came for Louisa to leave Bordentown, Charlotte presented her with one of her own paintings as a parting gift, and wrote in her diary that she had kept safe the letter she received from Louisa in way of reply, clearly showing, at least to a certain extent, her desire to remember the two weeks she spent in Louisa’s company. The two ladies would never meet again, or, as far as we know, keep in contact with the other. Upon her return to Washington, Louisa Adams threw herself into assisting her husband with his presidential campaign, whilst Charlotte Bonaparte returned to Brussels two years later, in August 1824. Nevertheless, the existence of these two accounts gives a fascinating window into two weeks in the lives of two powerful women in early 19th-century USA.


April 2018, ed. P.H.


[1] New Jersey, USA

[2] Charlotte’s diary can be found at the Fondazione Primoli, in Rome, Italy, whilst Louisa’s correspondence has been digitised by the American National Archives and is available freely online. For a detailed account on Louisa Adams see Shannon Selin “Louisa Adams, social charmer

[3] Iphigénie, play written by Jean Racine in 1674.

[4] Athalie, play written by Jean Racine in 1691.

[5] Text transcribed and published by Valeria Petitto in Charlotte Bonaparte – Fragments de Mémoires 1822-1824 in Gorgone, Giulia, Tittoni, Maria Elisa (eds), Charlotte Bonaparte: Dama di molto spirito, Rome: Museo Napoleonico/Sillabe, 2010, pp. 232-35.

[6] Charlotte Bonaparte was actually 19 years old, and only one month shy of her 20th birthday when she met Louisa Adams.

[7] Susanna Crawford, wife of William Crawford, who was the ex-U.S. Minister to France (1813-1815) and also a presidential candidate in the 1824 election.

[8] Eliza Monroe Hay, daughter of 5th U.S. President James Monroe, and wife of Virginia attorney George Hay. She grew up in France, and was a classmate of Hortense de Beauharnais, who would become a lifelong friend.

[9] The Chevalier de Anduaga, Spanish envoy to the United Kingdom.

[10] George Canning, British Foreign Secretary 1807-1809 and 1822-1827, later British Prime Minister April-August 1827.

[11] François-Joseph Talma (1763-1826), French actor.

[12] Jean Mauduit (1747-1827), French actor known on stage as “Larive” or “La Rive”.

[13] Andromaque, play written by Jean Racine in 1667.

[14] Probably a daughter of Dr James Mease, name unknown.

[15] Elizabeth Hopkinson, only surviving daughter of Mr and Mrs Hopkinson.

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